Originally organized in 1885 as the Pharmaceutical Department of the University of Kansas City, the school was reorganized and reincorporated in 1898 as the Kansas City College of Pharmacy and Natural Sciences. In 1943, this forerunner of the present school joined the University of Kansas City as its third professional school.
When the University of Kansas City was incorporated into the University of Missouri System in 1963, the School of Pharmacy became the only state-supported pharmacy school in Missouri. In October 1985, the school observed its centennial celebration, commemorating 100 years of progress in pharmaceutical education, research and service.
The School of Pharmacy is a member of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). The doctor of pharmacy program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). The most recent accreditation review occurred during the 2015–2016 academic year, when full accreditation was continued.